Country Profile: Spain

CategoriesCountry Profile CountriesSpain TopicsAir QualityEnd-usersFuel qualityInstallersModernisation of heating system


Population: 47,450,795

Area: 505,990 km2

Country profile

Spain is a southwestern European country with a very high level of human development and a GDP per capita below the European average and a urbanised population.

While the Spanish climate is generally warm thanks to the Mediterranean influence, winters can be cold in the noncoastal and northern areas. Forests cover more than 35% of the country surface, with a sustained growth in the last decades.

% of the H&C sector in the final energy consumption: 36,8%

% of renewables in the H&C sector: 17,5%

% of bioheat within renewables in the H&C sector: 80,1%

Biomass for heating in Spain

Spain has a renewable sources penetration in its energy mix very close to the EU average, around 20%. Electricity generation is much more decarbonised, closed to 50% of renewable sources than heating & cooling.

This is partially explained by the lower residential need of heat and the low mobilization of forestry biomass. On the contrary, cogeneration and the use of agricultural residues is more common than in other EU countries.

Spain bioenergy industry has remained stable for the last years, mainly because the lack of specific government incentives and the removal of feed-in tariffs for all renewables.

Spain domestic heating stock is general old and in particular the renewable-based stock. Gas and electric heating cope almost half each of the domestic share with heating oil and renewables very limited in the domestic environment.

While Spain has a small carbon price, this only covers industrial emissions. Regional governments can grant subsidies for fossil fuel appliances. Air quality competences are also shared between central government and local authorities, having the later responsabilities local road traffic, fires, urbanism, sanitary systems, management of local infrastructure and protection of local environment.

Spain presented its National Air Pollution Control Programme with an emission reduction target of 20% for PM2,5 for the period 2020-2029 in comparison with 2005 and 46% from 2030. Spanish Air Pollution Control Programme, submitted in 2019 foresees a 15% reduction in PM2.5 for the period 2020-2029 and a 50% decrease from 2030.

Relevant documents

  • Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan for Spain (ESEN)
  • National Air Pollution Control Programme (ENES)

National initiatives

To see all initiatives carried by our partners in this country, go back to our map of initiatives and select the country for which you would like to get more information.