Country Profile: Germany

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Population: 83,166,711

Area: 357,022 km2

Country profile

Germany is one of the founding Members of the EU. It is the main economy with a GDP per capita above the European average and predominantly urban population.

German climate is ranges from template to cold, with cold temperatures during winter. Germany has forests covering more than 30% of its surface, while relatively large areas are urbanised.

% of the H&C sector in the final energy consumption: 53,5%

% of renewables in the H&C sector: 13,6%

% of bioheat within renewables in the H&C sector: 86,5%

Biomass for heating in Germany

The renewable share of energy consumption is quite similar with the EU average, being slightly behind. Germany nuclear phase out will take place on 2022, coal only in 2038.[1]

Germany’s heating & cooling sector is clearly behind European average on renewability. Within, bioenergy is the main renewable source. A relevant share above 10% of its heating consumption is provided by district heating. Coal and gas remain as the primary heating sources.

Germany average age of heating appliances is above EU average. Germany’s  promotes both gas and renewable hybrid heating systems through the Market Incentive Programme. Although there is not a carbon tax, a national emission trading scheme covering buildings recently entered into force. Oil heaters are banned and progressively replaced.

Its National Air Pollution Control Programme foresees an emission reduction target of 37% for PM2,5 for the period 2020-2029 in comparison with 2005 and 41% from 2030.

Relevant documents

  • Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan for Germany (DEEN)
  • National Air Pollution Control Programme (DEEN)

National initiatives

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