Country Profile: Estonia

CategoriesCountry Profile CountriesEstonia TopicsAir QualityEnd-usersFuel qualityInstallersModernisation of heating system


Population: 1,328,976

Area: 45,227 km2

Country profile

Estonia is a northern European country with a high level of human development and a rather urban population.

The proximity to the sea conditions Estonia to a maritime climate, leading to moderate winters and cool summers. More than half of its surface is covered by forests.

% of the H&C sector in the final energy consumption: 54,0%

% of renewables in the H&C sector: 53,7%

% of bioheat within renewables in the H&C sector: 91,7%

Biomass for heating in Estonia

Estonia has a share of renewable energy of 32%, well above the EU average. This is partially explained by the high contribution of bioenergy.

The contribution of renewables for the heating and cooling sector in Estonia is one the highest within the EU. Its heating stock (including all technologies) is highly recent, with 61% installed after 2002.

Estonia has a carbon tax in place since 2000 (1,93€ in 2020). Renewable energy in 2030 is expected to represent 63% of the gross final consumption of heat (80% in district heating), with the main contribution coming from biomass (11 TWh) and new heat pump installations. The key policies and measures in the heating and cooling sector are economic and policy support for renewable energy production and the utilisation of the potential of co-generation, support to transition from oil to renewables, the renovation of district heating networks and boilers and promotion of the use of local renewables.

Estonia presented its National Air Pollution Control Programme with an emission reduction target of 41% for PM2,5 by 2030 relative to 2005.

Relevant documents

  • Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan for Estonia (ETEN)
  • National Air Pollution Control Programme (ETEN)

National initiatives

To see all initiatives carried by our partners in this country, go back to our map of initiatives and select the country for which you would like to get more information.